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In the course of my collecting and related research, I have been helped by several individuals and many reference websites. Individual credits are for contributions to the site content (writing or images). References notes sites on which I have drawn significant quotes or information. As in any literary work, any errors are of course my fault, and I welcome comments and corrections.


Aoi Saginuma

Translation of rules and publication information for Japanese games.

Dan Cermak

Image of the game Dictator

Laisvydas Liaudanskas

Image of Bizertie Gertie

Phil Orbanes

Essay describing his development of the first wargame on Vietnam in 1965

Philip Dennis

Donation of 19th Century game Rubicon


Old Johannesburg Warehouse

Images of the Boer War games Transvaal Spel and Called to Arms


In the course of my research on these games, I have drawn on a host of helpful sources. I want in particular to thank Wikipedia, which has produced information on some surprisingly obscure facts such as the 200th Regiment of the French Army, which was recruited for and died in the 1895 invasion of Madagascar. I make regular donations to Wikipedia and would encourage others to do the same., the most comprehensive online gaming community site, is a constant resource for tracking down possible acquisitions, identifying games from partial components and filling in gaps with respect to rules and publication data.


Google Translate was a great help in working out the rules to many antique German games. 

Other sources from which I have drawn direct quotes or detailed information include, listed by topic and order of appearance within the website stories:


The Great Game

The 1663 Le Jeu des Fortifications and the later Le Jeu de la Guerre by Gilles Jodelet, sieur de La Boissière:

Bibliotheque nationale de la France. See

Quote from WWI Canadian fighter ace Billy Bishop:

William Avery Bishop, Winged Warfare.

The evolution of the Waffenrock during the 19th Century:

Imperial German Uniforms 1842 to 1918 ( 

The voyages of the German cargo submarine Deutschland to the neutral United States during WWI:

Death of Colonel Elmer Ellsworth, first Union officer killed in the US Civil War:

Publication information on Grand National Victory:

Penn Museum Collections: Board Game, Game Board - 16294A 

Age of Empires

Suguroku variants

Pre-WWI British paranoia about being invaded

Quote from The Battle of Dorking: Reminiscences of a Volunteer, Sir George Tomkyns Chesney, 1871

World War I

Battle of Verdun, 1916

Initial anecdote from Wikipedia

Quotes from survivors of the battle:

Peace for a Time

Development of the German autobahn network

World War II

Rommel's battle experience in the invasion of France, 1940

B.H. Liddell-Hart (Ed), The Rommel Papers, New York: Da Capo Press. 1953, pp. 12-3

Reminiscences of Norman Eastmead, British Air-Sea Rescue Service

Life expectancy of WWII bomber crews

Makin Island raid

Hot to Cold

Death of Lt. Col. Peter Dewey

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